A2.2. Patient/ Customer Journey Mapping (P/CJM)

Patient/ Customer Journey Mapping (P/CJM)

What should I expect the outcomes to be of using the tool?

If you map the patient/customer journey immediately or as soon as is practicable after the event you will have an accurate interpretation of how your service is perceived by the user, along with suggestions of how you may improve it.

You can also map the actual inputs, as in process mapping, that occur to your patient /customer so you can track accurately what happened to them and where it took place. Spaghetti diagrams can also be generated to show the flow of where they attend and how often.

Tool/ method

Patient/Customer Journey Mapping is the process of tracking and describing all the experiences that customers have as they encounter a service or set of services, taking into account not only what happens to them, but also their responses and experiences.

Process mapping and completing a spaghetti diagram for the customer journey illustrates exactly what happens to them, over what timescale and where it took place. Giving, alongside CJM as described above, a comprehensive picture of the customer experience.

P/CJM can be used as a form of consultation to improve a service through finding out how people use the service and how they interact with the service provider.

P/CJM may be used with customers using a service for the first time or when we introduce any changes to service delivery. It also reminds us how it feels to receive services from health, social care & local government.

Why we may choose to use this tool/ method?

P/CJM may be used as a means of engaging with customers and carers to enable us to continually learn more about their needs and improve their experience of our services.

P/CJM may be used for small scale interactions with services or for more in-depth experiences.

P/CJM usually occurs as a one off event but could be re-visited with the same customer to gauge the effectiveness of improvements introduced as a result of their first journey mapping.

P/CJM is also useful for developing and strengthening service provider customer care and communication skills

Process mapping the customer journey helps to inform service improvement by accurately mapping current state of the process rather than the imagined current state based on what we think should be happening.

How you might use this tool/ method?

P/CJM involves the service provider meeting with the customer and discussing their experiences, recording them on the CJM template. The implementation of any suggested improvements may then be considered by the service provider. As the process records customer thoughts and feelings it is best done as soon as possible after their interaction with your service.

To map a customer journey using the Customer Experience Map template, fill it in with the customer. Record the journey and customer type and then complete all the sections.

Add information…

  • Key journey steps - record each part of the journey, i.e. Describe each step. They should be in chronological order with between 6 – 10 steps.
  • Moments of truth are key points in the journey where customers may pause and evaluate the experience, or make a crucial decision. Mark these with an X.
  • Actions, feelings and thoughts should be recorded for each step, ie. What the customer does and how they think and feel. Positive or negative emotions should be recorded.
  • Touch points may occur at any point in the journey and are when customer has some sort of interaction with the staff or service, e.g. Face-to-face or by phone. It is an opportunity to explain things to the customer and improve the experience.
  • Improvements. Record customer ideas that would improve the experience of each step. You may then discuss these with your team to consider implementation.

You will need to allow at least half an hour to fill in the template together with the customer.

What next?

It is up to you and your team how you decide to take forward any improvements and if it would be useful to re-map any improvements made.

Using the CJM process may identify areas for improvement that need to be taken forward as separate projects, involving different improvement tools and methods.

Examples/ case studies/ links to best practice/ evidence

An example to demonstrate how CJM may be applied is below, involving a scenario of someone going to a job interview and how their journey was mapped.


Example scenario: attending a job interview

Your letter tells you to go to the Human Resources office for 9am. When you enter the building at 8.30am there is a sign telling you HR is on the 3rd floor, but the lifts are behind a glass door with a security pass lock on it. There are no reception staff until 8.55am when the receptionist lets you in.

You reach the HR office at 9.03am, breathless and apologetic. It is raining heavily outside and you try to keep your wet coat and umbrella off your suit and papers while providing the receptionist with your documents.

The receptionist explains the person doing the tours isn’t in yet, but you will receive one after the interview. You sit in a waiting room and review your notes for 25mins. You are then ushered into the interview room where there are four people. The chair introduces himself, and starts to ask questions. Half way through, you ask a question and the chair tells you that you can ask all your questions at the end.

After the interview you go out to the waiting room again. The receptionist isn’t there. After 10mins you leave.


CJM: attending job interview

See below.


Evidence and sources

  • Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. (2012). Intensive Care and Nursing Development Unit: Annual Report 2010-11. Retrieved 28 April 2014 ICU-Annual-Report-2010-11.pdf

The Chelsea and Westminster Intensive Care Unit (ICU) undertook customer journey mapping to better understand what it is like to be a patient or relative using the intensive care service. As the project element of a reflective learning programme improvements to an NHS Library Outreach Service were identified using customer journey mapping.

A guide demonstrating the use and value of journey mapping, including when and how to use it.

Contact for further information


Example of how Patient/Customer Journey Mapping (CJM) can be used (Erika Gavillet, 2012)


Toolkit overview
The purpose of this toolkit
What is the Cumbria Production System?
How can we transform our services?
Cumbria Production System - improvement principles
What improvement outcomes and results can we expect?
When should you use the tools?
Key tool templates and visualisations
Summary of tools
Module 1: Our approach to improvement
1.1 Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA)
1.2 After Action Review (AAR)
1.3 Data gathering and evidence and '5 whys'
1.4 Measuring for improvement
1.5 A3
Module 2: Seeing the issues and adding value for the people who use our services
2.1 Maximising value
2.2 Customer Journey Mapping (CJM)
2.3 Process mapping
2.4 Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
Module 3: Waste removal and standardisation
3.1 Waste, waste wheel, waste walk
3.2 Spaghetti diagrams
3.3 5S workplace organisation
Module 4: Flow, demand and standard operations
4.1 Demand analysis
Module 5: Taking people with us
5.1 Stakeholder analysis
A. The tools in detail
Module 1: Our approach to improvement
A1.1 Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA)
A1.2 After Action Review (AAR)
A1.3 Data gathering and evidence and '5 whys'
A1.4 Measuring for improvement
A1.5 A3
Module 2: Seeing the issues and adding value for the people who use our services
A2.1 Maximising value
A2.2 Patient/ Customer Journey Mapping
A2.3 Process mapping
A2.4 Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
Module 3: Waste removal and standardisation
A3.1 Waste, waste wheel, waste walk
A3.2 Spaghetti diagrams
A3.3 5S workplace organisation
Module 4: Flow, demand and standard operations
A4.1 Demand analysis
Module 5: Taking people with us
A5.1 Stakeholder analysis
B. Common improvement terms (glossary)
C. References and acknowledgements